Roelof Van Straten (1986) Panofsky and ICONCLASS. Artibus et Historiae Vol. 7, No. 13 (1986) (pp. 165-181)
The article consists of two main parts. The first is a proposal for improvement of Panofsky’s iconographical theory. His famous three-leveled scheme is changed into a scheme of four levels of meaning in works of art. This enables us, to define the terms Iconography and Icononlogy much better. The revised “scheme of Panofsky” is exemplified at the case of Vermeer’s “Woman Holding a Balance” (National Gallery of Art, Washington). The second part of this paper is an introduction to the ICONOCLASS iconographic documentation and research system. In recent years, the theory of iconography has found some renewed interest among scholars working in the field of (computerized) iconographical documentation. The ICONCLASS system, with its bibliography and alphabetical index, solves many iconographical documentation problems, by combining several layers of meaning; working with ICONCLASS means working along the lines of the revised “scheme of Panofsky”. By the use of a particular painting representing of the “Choice of Moses”, an example is given of how the system works.